In most cases, seasonal influenza A viruses cause relatively mild upper respiratory tract disease, while sometimes patients develop an acute severe pneumonia.
Heterosubtypic immunity induced by previous infections with influenza A viruses may dampen the development of clinical symptoms caused by infection with influenza A viruses of another subtype, as is the case during influenza pandemics.
Considering cranberry's potential value if its effect in preventing UTIs were proven, ANSES will continue to monitor scientific developments on this topic.
The endocrine system dynamically controls tissue differentiation and homeostasis, but has not been studied using dynamic tissue culture paradigms.
Some of the available studies showed no effect of cranberry consumption on the recurrence of UTIs, whereas others reached no conclusion due to lack of data.
Furthermore, most of the results showing a positive effect of cranberry consumption on the occurrence and prevention of UTIs cannot be taken into account due to methodological weaknesses in the studies.
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The clinical symptoms caused by infection with influenza A virus vary widely and depend on the strain causing the infection, the dose and route of inoculation, and the presence of preexisting immunity.
We checked this quality standard in 2017 and it is still up to date.
The role of the urinary system is to cleanse the blood.
Such a claim would be improper in the light of current knowledge.
ANSES notes that the clinical trials assessing the effect of cranberry consumption often have methodological weaknesses, particularly in terms of the limited number of subjects and/or lack of a placebo.
This quality standard covers diagnosing and managing urinary tract infection in adults (aged 16 and over), including adults using urinary catheters.