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Public domain books are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. Also he heads his list with "Dialogo entre un Galan y el Echo," by Baltasar del Alcazar (likewise to be found in "Biblioteca de Autores Espaiioles," v. 408), which Menendez y Pelayo says is the only very good echo- poem in Spanish (cf. It was a sophis- ticated element, — and like most sophisticated elements came from the French and the Italian. 8 THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY is complete as the poet pronounced it and the echo merely makes additional statements.^ But often the author has deemed it necessary to introduce into the text some such words as "Echo answered," "Echo replied," or "And Echo said," fitting them into the rythm and meter of the verse. * * * Where there is no relief : Echo — Here is no relief. I mention this here merely to emphasize the artificiality of this sort of writing and the very great probability of a purely literary ancestry for this device as it was used in England. Author: I pine for grief e; ^ ^^ / And yet I want relief e. Author: No starre more faire then she whom I adore. This tendency is still further illustrated in the last sonnet quoted, that from Thomas Watson, where Echo uses the spoken words but does not care for the thoughts of the discon- solate lover.

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Google Book Search helps readers discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. The friends of my youth, where are theyf And an echo answered. 75 f.), has given some examples of this in English, 4* Greg: "Pastoral Poetry and Pastoral Drama," p. THE ECHO-DEVICE IN LITERATURE 15 III The appearance in Italian was discussed first because it is usually in the Italian that scholars have seemed to find sources for Renaissance characterise tics. It is entirely possible of course that the device came from a direct connection with the Byzantine Greeks — trouvhret were not unknown as travelers to Constantinople — but such an assumption would be merely guess-work and must taken too seriously.

You can search through the full text of this book on the web at |http : //books . Although the court of love probably did come out of Provence, such other matters and manners as the heroic ladies, the pastoral idea, the conception of virtu, the neo-Platonic love of the soul, the very plots of Elizabethan comedies and romances had — in the opinion of scholars — their origins beneath the blue skies of enchanted Italy. There has even been falsely attributed to him a pastoral "Chanson de d6part pour la croisade," which further complicates the matter. 222-227, says it is impossible to regard him as an old inhabitant of Artois. — Vent:' Even were it not so neatly done, the name of its distinguished author would be sufficient excuse for quoting the following dialogue between a lover and echo, by Dubellay; and note in passing the distinctly pastoral setting: Piteuse ficho, qui erres en ce bois, Reponds au son de ma piteuse voix.

Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we liave taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. ^Agamemnon hastens in answer to Polymestor's cry for rescue: Hearing a shout, I came; for in no whispers The mountain-rock's child Echo through the host Cried, waking tumult. Athens had its forerunners no less than Paris, London, and Berlin. Further than that its history can be briefly sketched. Here the repeated phrases form part and parcel of the measure of the song which would not be complete without them. The note on the "pointing of the words" is especially significant. That is the echo-poem.^^ ** This statement that the subject matter is of unrequited love, though very broad, demands only slight qualification.

We also ask that you: Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes. Knew we not the towers Of Phrygia of the spear of Greeks had fallen No little panic had this clangour raised. That previous obscurity prevents our having earlier records is no indication that the echo-dialogue, as any other form in art, architecture, or literature, did not previously exist. It first appeared in Western Europe, in the French in the poems of a thirteenth century Trouvere of Arras, and then in the Elizabethan period became extremely popular and its use spread to Spain and England, usually as a complement of pastoral poetry. And this type is that more usually employed in the drama, w^here stage directions obviate the necessity of the explanatory phrases found in type two. Angel-like, Then unto Saints in mind, Sh'is not unlike? (It is to be considered in reading this Passion, howe, in some answeres, the accent or poynting of the words is altered, and therewithal howe the Authour walking in the woods, and bewayling his inward passion of Love, is contraried by the replies of Echo: whose mean- ing yet is not so much to gainsay him, as to expresse her* own miserable estate in daily con- suming away for the love of her beloved Narcisstts; whose unkindnes Ovid describeth at large, together with the extreme love of Echo.) Author: "In all this world I thinke none love's but I Echo: None loves but I. The '^Dialogue between Glutton and Echo" is one exception to the rule.

A small and trivial harbor buoy may indicate the direc- tion of important currents. It seems that the device was by 1550 well established in both France and Italy, getting into the collections of poetry which were printed after the manner of the Eng- lish poetic miscellanies, and also into the technical treatises on the art of versification. Y responde el eco, no.' in echo sonnets in "Los palacios de Galiana" (v. There is no good reason for not believing that the very few manu- script miscellanies which have survived^* represent any large proportion of what was actually written, for the poems therein included were merely those which happened to be grouped into miscellanies which in their turn merely hap- pened not to have been lost. Xom^it but one dung can confoimd me, Jlany voices jonung round me; Then I fret, and raw, and gabble. We only include actual verbal echoes in this study. We shall not give the name of echo-verses to the clever little things turned - out in France by Clement Marot and by Cretin, equivocal punning lines which * should be more properly designated by their true title ryme conronnee. But we have been studying chiefly matters of form with only scant, and occasional, comments as to the thought usually expressed in this curious way.

In tracing the progress of a single technical trick through the mazes of comparative literature we may be tracing the course of greater movements. 18 THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY something from considering the dates of a few of these examples. These were light and ephemeral things to which no significance or importance was attached, and so they escaped preser- vation. Its only excuse for publication is its unique quality, for it is the only study of the sort that has ever been attempted, and it is, I believe, reasonably complete. Pleasing most when most I speak; The del^ilit of old and joim& Tbo Qg^ I speak without a toogve. Helicon" (1600), where there is not really an echo-device, but merely a repetition for musical effect. These other forms will be discussed in an order which will, in addition to recording our objections to some forms, give some idea of the manner in which the echo-device may have developed. 32 THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY We have now seen examples of the three types of echo poems which were distinguished in the section devoted to defining the device, and we have seen by several examples a large number of minor variations within the limits of the types there laid down. But the same cannot be said with equal cer- tainty of the echo-device. ' K' amors fait savoir; Avoir Ke puet (qui peut) belle amie. Ncl* (ne la) doit refuser; User En doit sans folie; Lie (douce). Then there is a German dissertation which collects a great deal and says very little: "Die Lieder des altfranxosichen lyrikers, Gille Le Vinier,". And then before we pass on to the Seventeenth Century where the device was more common, we must notice an early example in the "Roman d'Eneas." ^^ Passing the year 1600, the occurrences became very numerous.^*** It shall be sufficient for our purposes to quote only a few; first, a short one from Pierre de Saint Louis: "Que me fera T^poux dans sa souvesaine? No one has yet challenged the claim of Poliziana that his verses in 1498 deserve the priority in Italian. Reference to French literature reveals at least one example, and that better phrased than the one of Poliziano. Est la paine a fius (aux vrais) amans.*^ On the whole it can with safety be asserted that the French literature is richer in examples of this rare device than the Italian, is earlier to begin, and ends with them more frequently used as pastoral elements. a dissertation by Albert Metcke, printed in 1906 at Halle. ^Femme Qui plus tost homme et maison riche afl Pame? I quote from Gilles le Vinier, poet of the thirteenth century, giving only one strophe out of five, ffller Roquefort: Icelle est la tr^s-mignotte. During the sixteenth century, we find an adequate number. du Pont in his "Art et Science de Rhetorique" gave in 1539 four good lines: "Qu'est-ca du monde la chose plus infame ? non" ''The bracketed words are modem equivalents for the old French. 16 THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY Rabelais, in the chapter, "Comment Panurge se conseiile a Pantagruel, pour s^avair s'il se doibt marier," adds a record of the date 1545.^^ In a little book, "Receuil de Urage Poesia Fran^oise," published in 1544, there is a rather long French example, "D'une dame qui se complaint a Echo de la perte de son amy/' ^^ and fetienne Pasquier in his "Recherches de la France," gives some in Latin and French, from the sixteenth century.^* Then Sebillot, in "L'Art Poetique Francois" (1548), where he makes a regular classification for the type, gives an example with authorship unattributed: ^^ "Respon, Echo, et bien que tu sois f emme, Dy verite, qui fait mordre la fame? femme, Apres le faict, qu*est-ce qui la dif fame : fame. This is said to be the oldest in French, yet it is so well-developed a specimen that it may possibly not have been the only one of its time, (cf. 2, under "Gilles de Vinier" gives the following: "Bergmans, Paul, dans Biog. It is evident that here the voice of Echo was ever ready to respond when an author wished to address her.

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