There may be other innate issues that also affect cognitive development.
Some students may need to learn how to maintain control of their emotional state and others may need to understand how to express a variety of feelings in constructive ways.
Most children at this age experience frustration and fear, but these may often be expressed as anger or even in violent outbursts.
For example, Fred is more athletic and likes to be outside, while George prefers reading and board games.
Preschool teachers can use structured play to help generate interest in more physical activities.
For instance, because George is so shy, he has had fewer opportunities to practice communicating with other children.
Preschool teachers can help identify any barriers to language development by providing opportunities for evaluating children as they use language in a variety of contexts.
George, on the other hand, seems to be more serious, shy and reserved.
He struggles to interact socially with his peers and relies on Fred's friends for much of his socialization, when he's allowed to tag along.
Students have individual differences that impact their physical development, especially if the child is born with a disability that impedes growth or motor skills.
Some individual differences in personality may also impede physical development, for instance, among students who have different energy levels.
Some of these influential factors are external, like the environment the child is raised in or the experiences they have.